John Judis, The Folly of Empire










Pre-Revolutionary, Colonial America (1600-1776)


Kingdom of God on Earth


Papal Antichrist


Example as “city on the hill”


Revolutionary and founding era (1776-1815)


Empire of liberty


Old-world tyranny, monarchy, and empire


Example, continental expansion without entangling alliances


Jacksonian America (1815-1848)


Christian civilization


Savages or “children”


Example, continental expansion without entangling alliances


Imperial America (1898-1908)


Christian civilization


Barbarians and savages


Overseas expansion without entangling alliances


Wilsonian internationalism (1914-1919 and 1939-1946)


Global democracy, four freedoms


Autocracy, imperialism, and fascism


International organization and alliances


Cold War liberalism (1946-1989)


Global democracy




International organizations and alliances


Post-imperialism with remnants of imperialism (1989- )


Global democracy, third way?


International terrorism, rogue states?


International organizations, unilateral action?